Types and varieties of garlic – world classification

Garlic varieties are classified differently in individual countries. There are no international standards in this matter. Let’s consider the main variants of species, subspecies, groups and varieties of garlic



Types of garlic are distinguished:

By the ability to form scapes

  • garlic which forms scapes
  • garlic which does not form scapes

By the content of essential oil

  • dining — with a content of 0.2-0.4 mg per 100 g (hot) is usually garlic which forms scapes
  • technical — to 0.5-0.9 mg/100 g (medium spicy), this is usually garlic which does not form scapes

By time of planting:

  • winter
  • spring


Winter varieties of garlic are more productive, ripens early from 2 weeks to a month, but less stored under normal conditions until January (when the temperature is 1…4, and humidity is 75% can be stored until the next harvest).


Spring varieties are mainly used in the processing, the restaurant business and the sale through supermarkets.

Spring varieties of garlic stored much better but are smaller cloves.


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+380 50 694 4199 Tatiana

+380 67 446 5295 Anna




Indicator Winter varieties Spring varieties
Schematically ozimyi chesnok shema yarovoy chesnok shema
a photo ozimyi-chesnok yarovoy chesnok
Planting time Autumn Spring
Reproduction Cloves and air bulbis only cloves
Bulbs Large bulbs with large cloves small bulbs
Storage Worse be stored. Time to:

December, January — overall

February-March — in storage chambers

Be stored until the next harvest
Storage temperature during cold storage at t -1-+3°C At cold storage at t -1 – + 3 ° С
Scapes There are garlic which forms scapes


Minus: you need to delete the arrow.

If you delay with this, the harvest

Decreases (sometimes up to 30%).

Plus – the arrow grows

Air bulbs

Which can be propagated garlic,

Saving teeth and getting more

Genetically pure material.

There are garlic which does not form scapes

Garlic which does not form scapes

Minus: multiply can only teeth.

Maturation period mid-July late July-early August
Vegetation period 110-120 days strelkauskas

75-90 days is not strelkauskas

90-110 days
Productivity 6-8 t/ha without artificial irrigation

12-16t/ha with drip irrigation

4-6 t/ha
Average Bulb Weight 40-80 gram 35-40 gram
Period of sales The optimal duration of use:


spring products it is advisable

to use in the winter-spring period



Varieties of garlic

There are about 600 cultivated sub-varieties of garlic in the world. Most of them came from the few basic types that grow in different environments and developed their own characteristics over the centuries.

A single, universally recognized classification of varieties of garlic at the moment does not exist. So the question is what are different types of garlic does not always have a clear answer.

To define relationships between groups of cultivars, genetic testing is conducted in different countries. On the basis of such research in the United States were selected 10 the main varietal groups of garlic in the world.

Classification of world varieties of garlic in the USA

Klassifikatsiya sortov chesnoka


In the United States all commodity garlic in the world is divided into two subspecies:


  1. Hardnecks — firmly stem — close to our definition strelkauskas winter
  2. Softnecks — marketable — close to our definition nestrelyay spring


The most important difference between them is the presence or absence of a stalk that grows from the roots through the onion.

Firmly stem varieties (hardnecks) form the arrow on which is formed basket air bulbs. Air bulbs can be planted in the ground and next year will form the clove. Onion firmly stem varieties surrounding the stem consists of a single layer cloves correct form, usually in an amount of from 4 to 12 pieces.

These varieties typically grow better in areas with more severe winters and give higher yield.

In cooking (and therefore to the user) difference hardnecks that first, the arrows are edible and often used in dishes, especially Oriental cuisine. Secondly, Firmly stem (hardnecks) varieties have a richer flavor, they are sharper.

Marketable varieties (softnecks) have a greater number of cloves from 8 to 20 in the bulb, is about 30. Cloves irregular shape, arranged in two or more layers. Under stressful conditions (e.g. excess or lack of moisture) marketable varieties can produce basket of air bulbs. These air bulbs may be formed just above the bulb or even in the onion.

Marketable varieties are best kept in optimal conditions up to a year, unlike hardnecks stored 4-6 months.

Taste varieties of softnecks usually softer and less sharp.



Read more about varietal groups of garlic

These subspecies of garlic divided into 10 varietal groups:

Varietal group Photo bulbs
Artichoke  chesnok sortovoy gruppy artishok
Silverskin  chesnok sortovoy gruppy serebryanno-belyye
Turban  chesnok sortovoy gruppy tyurban
Creole  chesnok sortovoy gruppy Kreol
Asiatic  chesnok sortovoy gruppy aziatskiy
Rocambole  chesnok sortovoy gruppy Rokambol
Porcelain  Chesnok sortovoy gruppy Farforovyy
Standard Purple Stripe  Chesnok sortovoy gruppy fioletovyy standart
Glazed Purple Stripe  Chesnok sortovoy grupy fioletovyy glyantsevyy
Marbled Purple Stripe  Chesnok sortovoy gruppy fioletovyy matovyy

And every group includes a huge number of varieties



Classification of varieties of garlic in France

The French a little bit easier. They distinguish two types of garlic:

  1. spring
  2. autumn

and four groups of garlic varieties:

  1. white
  2. purple
  3. pink arrow
  4. pink without arrows

klassifikatsiya sortov chesnoka vo frantsii


Classification of varieties of garlic in Spain

Spain, along with France is the largest producer of garlic in Europe. However, special classification of Spanish varieties were not discovered. They use both American and French model.

  1. Hardnecks
  2. Softnecks


  1. Pink
  2. White
  3. Purple

klassifikatsiya sortov chesnoka v ispanii


photo from  filareefarm.com

Author: Andrey Marchenko

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