When and how to plant garlic. Advice from the agrouniversity

 

 

How to plant garlic, what the deadlines are, what depth and what distance to leave between rows and plants, learn from this article.

 
 
 
 



 
 
 
 

Time for plant garlic

To obtain a high and qualitative harvest of garlic, it is important to correctly solve the problem when planting garlic.

Winter garlic, as its name indicates, is planted under winter, so that the garlic cloves are well rooted, but not sprouted.

The overwintering of garlic is closely related to the development of the root system: the latter is larger, the less is the probability of freezing.

The results of the research confirm that before the winter, the clove of garlic should have 12-18 roots in a length of 5-10 cm. To develop such a root system, it takes approximately 35-45 days.

Summarizing the experience of growing garlic in Ukraine, scientists determine such lines of planting garlic

 

When to plant winter garlic

  • northern regions of Ukraine – the third decade of September
  • the central and western regions of Ukraine – the first half of October
  • the south of Ukraine – the second half of October
  • Transcarpathia – the second half of October

The practice of planting garlic in the first decade of November is dangerous, especially in the years with early and cold winters, when a significant part of the garlic cloves, before they are entrenched, perishes.

If a part of winter garlic is not planted in the fall and the bulbs are well preserved, it can be planted in the spring. The success of growing depends both on the properties of the variety or local form, and on the storage temperature and the timing of planting.

Most winter varieties in the case of spring planting form bulb- garlic cloves. Some form a bulb, divided into garlic cloves, but smaller, as in the autumn planting and garlic cloves. More bulbs are differentiated into the garlic cloves in the case of cold storage with temperatures from -5 to + 4 ° C and the earliest planting.

Delay with planting leads to a mass formation of a garlic clove and storage during the winter at room temperature can cause vegetation of plants until late autumn but usually without the formation of bulbs.

 

 

When to plant spring garlic

Spring garlic is planted as soon as possible to enter the field (the third decade of March – the beginning of April). Delay even for a few days’ results in shredding bulbs and essential decrease in yield. There are examples when the yield of spring garlic when planting on March 20 was 54% higher compared to the April 5 planting.

 

Ukrainian garlic cooperative “UkrUp” offers:

 

+380 50 694 4199 Tatiana

+380 67 446 5295 Anna

 

Arrangement patterns and areas of food for garlic

The most common scheme for planting garlic in Ukraine, especially in large areas, is wide-row (45 cm spacing) or double-row tape (45 + 20) with a line spacing of 20 and a wide row spacing of 45 cm. In smaller areas, plant with a row spacing of 30 cm, Small beds reduce it to 20 cm, increasing the distance between plants.

 

Как сажать чеснок схема

 

 

In Poland, a ribbon four-row scheme of planting garlic with a wide width of 54 rows is very common and narrow 27 cm, which allows mechanized caring and harvesting. Also recommended are line plantings with a row spacing of 30-40 cm.

Lighting, nourishing, water-air regimes that determine a certain level of harvest depend largely on the area of ​​feeding, which, under certain landing schemes, is determined by the correctly established distance between plants in a row and will equal the product of the row spacing by this distance. In particular, according to the most widespread in Ukraine wide-row scheme, it will be 45 cm multiplied by a certain distance between plants in a row.

Here it is necessary to emphasize that due to its morphology and physiological nature, garlic occupies a relatively small feeding area, which is approximately from 90-100 to 360 cm2.

With a stable aisle, determined by the chosen landing scheme, the feeding area will vary depending on the morphological nature of the garlic, in particular, the size of the garlic clove, and consequently, the plant. As a rule, spring garlic plants are smaller, and winter crops are larger, so the distance in the row between spring crops will be less – 4-5 cm, winter crops – more (6-10, possibly 12 cm).

 

The optimal area of ​​supply can be considered 315 square meters. (landing scheme 45 × 7 cm). The increase in the feeding area to 450-540 cm2 according to the planting schemes of 45 x 10 and 45 x 12 cm leads to a decrease in the volume of harvest per hectare (due to a decrease in the number of plants per hectare), but to a slight increase in its marketability due to an increase in the number of large and medium bulbs.

Garlic cloves weighing 2-3 g proved to be more productive with a sufficiently high marketability for a variant with a feeding area of ​​225 cm2, where, with a wide row spacing (45 cm), the distance between the plants in the bed was 5 cm.

In small areas (household plots), the distance between rows can be reduced to 25-30 cm, while preserving the optimal area of ​​supply by increasing number of large and medium bulbs.

Garlic cloves weighing 2-3 g proved to be more productive with a sufficiently high marketability for a variant with a feeding area of ​​225 cm2, where, with a wide row spacing (45 cm), the distance between the plants in the bed was 5 cm.

In small areas (homesteads), the distance between rows can be reduced to 25-30 cm, preserving the optimal feeding area by increasing the distance between plants in the row, in particular according to the scheme of 25 cm x 12 cm or 30 cm x 10 cm. In both cases We obtain the feeding area for a garlic clove weighing 3-5 g, very close to the optimal (315 cm2).

The area of ​​feeding depends not only on the size of the planting material, but also on the fertility of the soil, the characteristics of the variety. In particular, on fertile soils with high agrotechnics, it can be somewhat reduced. For tall varieties that develop a large mass, the area of ​​food should be increased.

 

In general, the winter crop shooter should be grown in a wide-row manner with a distance between rows of 45 cm and between plants in the line:

  • large garlic cloves weighing 6-9 m or more should be placed in a row at a distance of 8-10 cm with a feeding area of ​​45 x 8-10 cm, which is 360-450 square meters. cm.
  • for medium garlic cloves with a mass of 5 g 7 cm (feeding area 45 x 7 = 315 cm2)
  • for small, 3 g weight, – 5 cm (feeding area 45 x 5 = 225 cm2)
  • for very small ones, 1 – 1.5 m, – 3 cm (feeding area 45 x 3 – 135 cm 2)

 
 
 




 
 
 

How much garlic to plant per hectare

The norm of sowing garlic depends both on the area of ​​nutrition of one plant, which determines the planting pattern, and the weight of the landing gear.

In the feeding area of ​​315 cm (45 x 7 cm), the number of garlic cloves to be planted per 1 ha (10000 m2) is:

10000 m2: 0.0315 m2 = 317460 pieces / ha.

To determine the mass of garlic cloves needed for planting on 1 ha, multiply the number by the average mass of the garlic cloves, namely: 317460 pieces. Garlic cloves x 4-5 g (mean 4.5 m) = 1429 kg of garlic cloves per hectare.

Setting the amount of garlic needed for planting on an area of ​​1 hectare, the norm of the garlic cloves should be increased by 5-7%, since the bulbs, apart from the garlic cloves, have cover scales, a bottom and a part of the arrow. For the convenience of calculations, we give the table of norms for planting garlic per hectare.

 

Norms of planting garlic cloves, kg / ha

Number of plants per 1 hectare, thousand pieces. Average mass of bulbs and rounds, gram
1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3 4 5 6 7
250 625 750 1000 1250 1500 1750
300 600 750 900 1200 1500 1800 2100
350 525 700 875 1050 1400 1750 2100 2450
400 400 000 800 1000 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800
500 500 750 1000 1250 1500 2000 2500 3000
600 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2400 3000
700 700 ]050 1400 1750 2100 2800

 

 

At what depth do you put garlic

In the technology of growing garlic, it is also important to what depth to plant garlic. It is known that a shallow planting of garlic leads to the bulging of the garlic cloves from the soil with a rapidly growing compact bundle of rootlets, while under unfavorable external conditions, the garlic cloves die. Too deep planting leads to liquefaction of crops, delays growth of bulbs and reduces yield.

The depth depends on the time of planting of garlic, the size of the garlic clove and the mechanical composition of the soil. It is calculated from the base of the garlic clove – the bottom, where the cone of growth is located and originates the roots, to the surface of the soil.

  • Depth of planting garlic for winter (winter) from 7-8 to 10-12 cm
  • Depth of planting garlic in spring (spring) – 5-7 cm.

Of particular importance to what depth of planting garlic is for winter garlic, it should be sprinkled so that the soil layer above the garlic cloves is at least 3-4 cm.

Middle garlic cloves should be planted at 7-8 cm., large ones 8-10 to 12 cm. On light soils, garlic cloves should be planted somewhat deeper than on heavy ones. Lowering the temperature in the zone of the bottom up to minus 12-14 ° C can lead to substantial freezing of garlic. Especially dangerous is the drop in temperature in November-December without snow.

 

 

 

Схема на какую глубину сажат чеснок

 

To guarantee the appropriate depth of planting, especially on large areas, it is necessary to pre-cut the sowing grooves in accordance with the planting scheme, using a tractor marker or a hiller after some re-equipment or other mechanisms, for example, a somewhat converted old maize-cropper.

Cutting furrows pay special attention to their depth, since this will determine the depth of the planting of garlic.

 

How to plant garlic. Landing technique

 

Planting garlic – a complex and responsible process, this largely depends on the volume and quality of the crop. Properly planted garlic cloves should occupy a vertical position, its lower part should be pressed vigorously enough to the ground so that during the dropping it retains an upright position and in the shortest possible time begins to take root The bottom of the clove is supposed to lie down and gain a foothold on a fairly Packed box too loose soil before planting roll. Rolling with light rollers can also be recommended after planting, especially on lightly textured soils. If no packing is provided, it is desirable to heat a small hump that will protect from low temperatures and will contribute to the best winter of garlic.

These conditions can best be performed when manually planting garlic in pre-cut grooves with a depth of 8-12 cm according to the planting pattern. In order for the furrows to be opened better, metal plates are welded to the chisel-like chisels of the hillock. In the finished grooves, a clove of garlic is laid out for a given distance and closed by the same podgortachhem with trains or chopper.

We emphasize that such a landing most fully meets the biological requirements of culture. However, manual planting requires a fairly significant cost of funds and a lot of labor in a busy autumn period. Significantly reduce the costs of manual labor (by 20-25 times) can be, using for planting garlic special garlic planters, whose productivity is 2.5-3.0 hectares for a seven-hour working day.

However, the machine landing of garlic in comparison with manual garlic has a number of disadvantages. The main thing is that during the machine landing it is not possible to ensure that the garlic clove hits the bottom.

 

An example of our landing of garlic with JJBROCH

 

We wish everyone good harvests of garlic!


This article was prepared using the publications of scientists from Lviv NAU: L.P. Lishchak, V.V. Snitinsky, NI Kovalchuk, IA Lishchak


Andrey Marchenko


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