Garlic varieties are classified differently in individual countries. There are no international standards in this matter. Let’s consider the main variants of species, subspecies, groups and varieties of garlic
Types of garlic are distinguished:
By the ability to form scapes
- garlic which forms scapes
- garlic which does not form scapes
By the content of essential oil
- dining — with a content of 0.2-0.4 mg per 100 g (hot) is usually garlic which forms scapes
- technical — to 0.5-0.9 mg/100 g (medium spicy), this is usually garlic which does not form scapes
By time of planting:
Winter varieties of garlic are more productive, ripens early from 2 weeks to a month, but less stored under normal conditions until January (when the temperature is 1…4, and humidity is 75% can be stored until the next harvest).
Spring varieties are mainly used in the processing, the restaurant business and the sale through supermarkets.
Spring varieties of garlic stored much better but are smaller cloves.
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|Indicator||Winter varieties||Spring varieties|
|Reproduction||Cloves and air bulbis||only cloves|
|Bulbs||Large bulbs with large cloves||small bulbs|
|Storage||Worse be stored. Time to:
December, January — overall
February-March — in storage chambers
|Be stored until the next harvest|
|Storage temperature||during cold storage at t -1-+3°C||At cold storage at t -1 – + 3 ° С|
|Scapes||There are garlic which forms scapes
Minus: you need to delete the arrow.
If you delay with this, the harvest
Decreases (sometimes up to 30%).
Plus – the arrow grows
Which can be propagated garlic,
Saving teeth and getting more
Genetically pure material.
There are garlic which does not form scapes
|Garlic which does not form scapes
Minus: multiply can only teeth.
|Maturation period||mid-July||late July-early August|
|Vegetation period||110-120 days strelkauskas
75-90 days is not strelkauskas
|Productivity||6-8 t/ha without artificial irrigation
12-16t/ha with drip irrigation
|Average Bulb Weight||40-80 gram||35-40 gram|
|Period of sales||The optimal duration of use:
|spring products it is advisable
to use in the winter-spring period
Varieties of garlic
There are about 600 cultivated sub-varieties of garlic in the world. Most of them came from the few basic types that grow in different environments and developed their own characteristics over the centuries.
A single, universally recognized classification of varieties of garlic at the moment does not exist. So the question is what are different types of garlic does not always have a clear answer.
To define relationships between groups of cultivars, genetic testing is conducted in different countries. On the basis of such research in the United States were selected 10 the main varietal groups of garlic in the world.
Classification of world varieties of garlic in the USA
In the United States all commodity garlic in the world is divided into two subspecies:
- Hardnecks — firmly stem — close to our definition strelkauskas winter
- Softnecks — marketable — close to our definition nestrelyay spring
The most important difference between them is the presence or absence of a stalk that grows from the roots through the onion.
Firmly stem varieties (hardnecks) form the arrow on which is formed basket air bulbs. Air bulbs can be planted in the ground and next year will form the clove. Onion firmly stem varieties surrounding the stem consists of a single layer cloves correct form, usually in an amount of from 4 to 12 pieces.
These varieties typically grow better in areas with more severe winters and give higher yield.
In cooking (and therefore to the user) difference hardnecks that first, the arrows are edible and often used in dishes, especially Oriental cuisine. Secondly, Firmly stem (hardnecks) varieties have a richer flavor, they are sharper.
Marketable varieties (softnecks) have a greater number of cloves from 8 to 20 in the bulb, is about 30. Cloves irregular shape, arranged in two or more layers. Under stressful conditions (e.g. excess or lack of moisture) marketable varieties can produce basket of air bulbs. These air bulbs may be formed just above the bulb or even in the onion.
Marketable varieties are best kept in optimal conditions up to a year, unlike hardnecks stored 4-6 months.
Taste varieties of softnecks usually softer and less sharp.
Read more about varietal groups of garlic
These subspecies of garlic divided into 10 varietal groups:
|Varietal group||Photo bulbs|
|Standard Purple Stripe|
|Glazed Purple Stripe|
|Marbled Purple Stripe|
And every group includes a huge number of varieties
Classification of varieties of garlic in France
The French a little bit easier. They distinguish two types of garlic:
and four groups of garlic varieties:
- pink arrow
- pink without arrows
Classification of varieties of garlic in Spain
Spain, along with France is the largest producer of garlic in Europe. However, special classification of Spanish varieties were not discovered. They use both American and French model.
photo from filareefarm.com
Author: Andrey Marchenko
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