Planting garlic – terms, scheme, mechanization

You can plant garlic from September to March inclusive. Special issues arise in determining when to plant winter garlic, because the time of planting greatly affects how the garlic will survive the winter.
 
 
 
 



 
 
 
 

When to plant garlic

Terms of planting winter garlic

In the case of planting winter garlic, determining the optimal timing for planting affects:

  1. The ability of garlic to safely transfer winter frosts
  2. Productivity

 

The main task is to ensure that until the onset of permanent frost, garlic is well established, but does not release leaves (small sprouts are allowed – up to 2 cm, 1-2 leaves, but still not desirable)

 

Ukrainian garlic cooperative “UkrUp” offers:

 

+380 50 694 4199 Tatiana

+380 67 446 5295 Anna

 

If you miss the landing, the risk increases that the garlic will not have time to take root before the frost and some of the crop will die (non-rooted garlic can freeze at minus 10 degrees). In addition, weakly rooted garlic will also give less harvest.

If too early to land garlic, then in the warm autumn, it can shoot up to frosts and then its portability of frosts also decrease.

 

Poor rooting is the main cause of garlic death in winter

 

Temperature regimes

  • When the temperature drops below 1-3 degrees below zero, the root growth stops.
  • When the temperature drops below 3-5 degrees of heat, the stems of garlic stop growing.
  • Garlic cloves are formed at a temperature of 15-20 degrees Celsius
  • For a full ripening, a temperature of 20-25 degrees

 

Landmarks for determining the time of planting of winter garlic

  • Lowering the soil temperature to 10-12 degrees at a depth of 5 centimeters
  • 35-45 days before the start of stable frosts

 

Approximate terms of planting winter garlic in autumn:

  • northern and north-eastern regions of Ukraine – from September 20 to 30
  • central and western regions of Ukraine – from 1 to 15 October
  • southern and southeastern regions of Ukraine – from October 15 to October 31

Of course, should pay attention to climate change. Recently, planting dates are shifting. In 2015, we planted garlic in the central region of Ukraine on October 20.

 

Even if the landing of garlic was timely, some weather events may affect yield reduction:

  • poor rooting due to dry soil in autumn
  • early freezing
  • a small amount of snow

 

Terms of planting spring garlic

Not later than March 20-25

 

 

Scheme of planting garlic 

The scheme of planting should be determined even before the purchase of planting garlic. After all, in what order will garlic be planted on the field and determines how many pieces you need to buy garlic cloves (the average weight of the garlic cloves is also influencing, and, of course, the size of the field).

 

Determining the scheme of planting garlic need to proceed with such prerequisites:

  • whether drip irrigation will be used or not
  • what characteristics of the existing machinery for field processing (width of tractor track and width of its wheels, what units will be planted, processed, cleaned)

For example, the scheme for planting garlic may look like this:

shema-posadki-chesnoka

 

The width of the bed is 160 cm.

The distance between the rows is 25 cm.

The row spacing is 85 cm.

The distance between the garlic cloves in a row is 9 cm

 

With this arrangement, there will be 278,000 plants per hectare (if the distance between the garlic cloves in the row is reduced to 7 cm, then 360,000 plants per hectare).

Thus, it can be determined that, for example, the average weight of a garlic cloves = 5 grams, we need about 1,400 (1,800) kilograms of landing garlic cloves per hectare.

 

The distance in a row between the cloves of garlic – depends, of course, on the characteristics of the variety of garlic. Firing grades need more space, since its more powerful exterior requires a large area of ​​power. In addition, if bulbs of some varieties are able to grow up to 8 cm in diameter, then the distance between the garlic cloves should be 8 cm. Therefore, for the cultivating varieties, the distance between the garlic cloves in a row is usually 7-9 cm. For non-shooting – 5-7 cm.

 
 
 




 
 
 

Depth of landing of garlic

The depth of planting winter garlic varies between 6-10cm (from the bottom of the garlic cloves). First of all, the depth affects the winter hardiness and germination, that is, it is necessary to protect against frost, but to allow the germination. Depth of landing from the ground depends (see the table), the values ​​of the garlic cloves (large 8-10 cm, small – 5-6 cm.), Soil moisture retention:

Light sandy loam soils Clay soils Black earth
9-10 сm 6-7 сm 6-7 сm

 

Preparation of garlic before planting

Separation of bulbs into garlic cloves

As a seed for the production of marketable garlic can be used garlic cloves or bulbs.

Prepare bulbs for planting is easy enough but the preparation of the garlic cloves is a laborious process – you need to divide the bulbs into garlic cloves.

What garlic bulbs to select for planting:

  • first or second reproduction
  • not less than 3 cm in diameter (by the largest transverse diameter)
  • without visible signs of damage to pests and diseases
  • with a solid, solid bottom

Manually one worker per working day can divide into the garlic cloves 30-50 kg of bulbs. Thus, approximately 28 man / days will be required to prepare a 1 hectare crop.

 

 

Calibration of garlic cloves (or garlic rounds)

For uniform and homogeneous planting of garlic it is desirable to calibrate the garlic cloves according to the dimensions:

Seed Type Large Garlic cloves Medium Мелкие
Winter garlic more than 6 grams 3-6 grams less than 3 grams
Spring garlic more than 1,7 grams 1,0-1,7 grams less than 1 grams
Garlic rounds more than 12 mm 10-12 mm less than 10 mm

 

Plants from different in mass garlic cloves do not mature at the same time, so in the absence of calibration during harvesting, some bulbs may be slightly overripe, and some are not ripe which leads to a decrease in the marketable appearance of garlic.

Manually, such an operation can be performed using a hand sieve with a different cell diameter.

For the mechanical preparation of the garlic cloves, lines can be used to crush and calibrate the garlic which greatly simplifies and speeds up the process.

An example on the video is a line on the crushing and calibration of garlic produced by the Spanish company JJ BROCH.

The performance of this line in various modifications is from 250 to 1000 kg / h

 

Seed dressing

In order to prevent the destruction of garlic with a plant nematode and diseases (rot, bacterios, Phytophthora infestans), before dressing the garlic cloves and the garlic one must be etched. For this, preparations are used in accordance with the “List of Pesticides and Agrochemicals Permitted for Use in Ukraine”

You can see on the website: Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine

 

Planting garlic

Sowing of garlic by hand

For planting garlic by hand in industrial volumes, grooves are preliminarily prepared with the aid of a hiller and a tractor to a depth of 10-12 cm.

Then manually insert the garlic cloves with a predetermined interval (7-9 cm). When sowing garlic by hand, there is an advantage – you can orient the garlic cloves downside down which will increase the commodity value of grown garlic.

Close the furrows manually with a sap or a hillside with trains.

 

Planting garlic with machinery

The use of planters for planting garlic is preferable in terms of:

  • More accurate seeding at a specified depth
  • Ensuring smooth rows
  • Significant reduction in labor costs

 

Examples of planters for garlic and their producers

 sazhalka-dlya-chesnoka-erme  sazhalka-dlya-chesnoka-JJBroch  sazhalka-dlya-chesnoka-zocapi
Erme JJBroch Zocapi

 


Author: Andrey Marchenko

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