Fusarium of garlic (the bottom rot) is caused by the fungi of the genus Fusarium. This is the most dangerous disease of garlic which affects onions, tomatoes, cucumbers, corn and cereals.
Fusarium is a disease of plants caused by a lesion of pathogenic microorganisms – fungi.
Plant death occurs due to acute deterioration of vital functions due to blockage of blood vessels by fungal mycelium and the allocation of toxic substances.
In General, fungi cause most of the diseases of garlic.
In turn rot the bottom of the garlic found in two types — Fusarium (the subject of this article) and Sclerotinia (white) rot the bottom — consider the following materials.
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The causative agents of head blight of garlic
The genus of fungi Fusarium has 705 species. It is believed that garlic and onions affect such species of this fungus
|Fusarium oxysporum||Fusarium culmorum (roseum )||Fusarium solani|
|Fusarium moniliforme||Fusarium proliferatum||Fusarium verticillioides|
The spread of Fusarium garlic and onions
The fungi that cause Fusarium ear rot of garlic and onion are propagated vegetatively (by pieces of mycelium) or spores. Getting on the plant, the spores germinate and the mycelium, which penetrates inside the plant or develops on the surface. So there is a infection of plants.
The causative agents of head blight of garlic stored in the winter in the bulbs, on plant debris and soil.
In the spring primary cause infected by ascospores or conidia affected the aboveground part of plants. In the spring-summer period, the number of generations depends on the weather conditions. Late frosts and the return of cold temperatures favor development of the disease; temperature fluctuations during the day or within a few weeks also stimulate the formation of additional quantities of conidia. In addition, as a result of nitrogen fertilizer in a stressful environment increases sporulation of the pathogen and reduced the ability of plants to resist pathogen invasion.
The main sources of infection:
- planting material
Dissemination can occur through:
- infected seed
- dissemination of spores by wind, insects
- contaminated soil on tools, equipment, shoes
- runoff from contaminated sites
The pathogen enters the plant through the stem, the basal plate or injured tissue. The disease develops from the stems and progressing towards the tips of clove of garlic. The infection can occur at any time in the field or during storage.
The spread of the disease contribute to a higher temperature of 28-32 ° C and high humidity. Rains late in the season may contribute to the development of the pathogen.
Fusarium of garlic is a symptoms and signs
During the growing season
The first symptoms appear during the growing season in the form of yellowing or bronzing of the leaf which starts from the tops.
On the fake stem can be formed pink or pink-purple plaque — conidia sporulation of the fungus.
Bulb of garlic is affected mainly from the bottom, the fungus penetrates into the root system, from which the roots becomes pink color, rot and die. At the base of infected bulbs sometimes you can see the spread of white fungus.
Diseased bulbs during storage become soft, dark and covered with white bloom, and after a while completely rot. In the early stages, infected teeth garlic is softened, brown and watery structures. Also can appear white, light pink or reddish fungal mycelium that covers the bulb completely or develops in the affected location.
The disease affects at least the garlic for spring planting
Fusarium of garlic and onions — how to deal with it
- Removal of infected plants together with a lump of earth
- Burning (not compost) infected plants
- Cleaning of tools after working with infected plants, disinfection using technical alcohol
- Soil application of potassium oxide or lime
- Mulching planting black PVC film or silver plastic wrap — inhibits the development of pathogenic fungus
In the preparation of planting material
You should choose a disinfectant. Today, to protect plants from Fusarium, probably is the best active substance has fludioxonil.
- Maxim XL, the production of Syngenta Switzerland. The active substance of 25 g/l was Fludioxonil 10 g/l metalaxyl–M (from seed molding, Fusarium root rot, downy mildew, disease)
During the growing season if there are signs of defeat
- Custodia, produced Adam, Israel. Active substance tebuconazole 200 g/l + AZOXYSTROBIN, 120 g/l
- Switch to production of Syngenta, Switzerland. The active ingredient 375 g/l Cyprodinil 250 g/l was Fludioxonil
- Yuniform, the production of Syngenta, Switzerland. The active substance is 322 g/l AZOXYSTROBIN 124 g/l metalaxyl–M
In the video — like fungus Fusarium affects planted culture:
- Department of Plant Pathology North Carolina State University
Posted by: Andrey Marchenko
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